The New Health Care: It’s Hard for Doctors to Unlearn Things. That’s Costly for All of Us.

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We know it can be hard to persuade physicians to do some things that have proven benefits, such as monitor blood pressure or keep patients on anticoagulants. But it might be even harder to get them to stop doing things.

In May, a systematic review in JAMA Pediatrics looked at the medical literature related to overuse in pediatric care published in 2016. The articles were ranked by the quality of methods; the magnitude of potential harm to patients from overuse; and the potential number of children that might be harmed.

In 2016 alone, studies were published that showed that we still recommend that children consume commercial rehydration drinks (like Pedialyte), which cost more, when their drink of choice would do. We give antidepressants to children too often. We induce deliveries too early, instead of waiting for labor to kick in naturally, which is associated with developmental issues in children born that way. We get X-rays of ankles looking for injuries we almost never find. And although there’s almost no evidence that hydrolyzed formulas do anything to prevent allergic or autoimmune disease, they’re still recommended in many guidelines.

Those researchers had reviewed the literature on overuse in children before, looking at all the studies from a year earlier. They modeled the work on a set of papers in JAMA Internal Medicine that looked at overuse in adults through a review of the literature published in 2015, 2014 and 2013.

Overuse is rampant. And it can harm patients.

By the end of the 20th century, for example, research seemed to indicate that we wanted to keep patients in the intensive care unit in a tight range of blood glucose levels. The evidence base for these recommendations came from observational studies that showed that patients with such tight control seemed less likely to develop adverse outcomes like infections or hyperglycemia, and they seemed more likely to survive.

Researchers tested this recommendation prospectively in a randomized controlled trial in a surgical intensive care unit. The results, published in 2001, appeared to confirm the prior findings, that tight glycemic control saved lives.

The study wasn’t perfect. It wasn’t blinded, for instance, and there were downsides to the recommendations. About 5 percent of those who received the intensive therapy had severe hypoglycemia at least once. The mortality in the control group was higher than what might be expected. Finally, this was a study of mostly post-cardiac surgery patients, and it wasn’t clear how widely the findings could be generalized.

Nevertheless, this was a huge benefit, and given the severity of the population being treated (intensive care patients are usually very, very ill), many experts called for changes in treatment while further research was done.

That larger work was published in 2009. The study randomly assigned more than 6,000 patients admitted to an intensive care unit for more than three days — to either tight or traditional glucose control. This time, there was a significantly higher rate of death in the tight control group (27.5 percent vs. 24.9 percent), as well as a much higher rate of severe hypoglycemia (6.8 percent vs. 0.5 percent). These findings applied to patients over all and to subgroups (like surgical versus medical patients).

In light of this, guidelines changed again. Physicians were asked to stop the widespread tight glycemic control.

In 2015, some enterprising researchers set out to look at how this knowledge changed physician behavior. Beginning in 2001, they looked at how physicians adopted the recommendations to use tight glycemic control in patients admitted to intensive care units. Starting in 2009, they looked at how physicians absorbed new information telling them to stop.

From 2001 through 2012, they analyzed data on more than 377,000 admissions to 113 intensive care units in 56 hospitals. Before the first trial was published, in 2001, 17 percent of admissions used tight glycemic control. Beginning in that year, however, there was a slow but steady increase in its use. About 1.7 percent more patients were being treated with recommended practice each quarter.

It’s hard to change behavior, but over time, physicians did. By 2009, the use of tight glycemic control had increased to about 23 percent. Many might have hoped for more, but at least there was progress.

Starting in 2009, however, the reverse was recommended. Doctors were asked to stop. Tight glycemic control was associated not only with higher mortality, but also with more adverse events.

That didn’t happen. From 2009 through 2012, there was no decrease in tight glycemic control. The authors argued that “there is an urgent need to understand and promote the de-adoption of ineffective clinical practices.”

That is, of course, an understatement.

Choosing Wisely, an initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, is entirely focused on the identification of care that physicians routinely recommend but shouldn’t. Almost 600 different tests, procedures or treatments, collected over the last six years, are currently listed on their website. Almost all the recommendations basically say “don’t do” them.

This overuse doesn’t provide a benefit. It can lead to harms. It can also cost a lot of money.

The public shares some culpability. Americans often seem to prefer more care than less. But a lot of it still comes from physicians, and from our inability to stop when the evidence tells us to. Professional organizations and others that issue such guidelines also seem better at telling physicians about new practices than about abandoning old ones.

I asked Daniel Niven, the lead author of the 2015 study, why it’s so hard to persuade doctors to discontinue certain practices. He said physicians have a hard time unlearning what they have learned, even when there’s newer and better science available. He said, “Even if the new contradictory science is accepted, providers often struggle applying this information in their daily clinical practice, not because they don’t want to, but rather, because they work within a system that doesn’t adapt well to changing evidence.”

He also said doctors might need to be more thoughtful about prevention: “We need to take a more cautious approach to technology adoption, and learn from mistakes of early adoption of health care technologies based on little or low-quality clinical evidence. This way we can prevent the need to ‘break up’ with the practice when the high-quality evidence shows that it is ineffective.”

Overuse represents a significant problem. As policymakers look for ways to save money without harming quality in the health care system, reducing overuse seems as if it should be a top option.

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My Wrist Is Glowing: At Business Events, Shorter Lines and Less Privacy

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The corporate event has gone digital. Paper tickets and itineraries have given way to badge swipes and electronic agendas. Chance meetings have been replaced by automatically curated networking. And there’s no need to take notes for colleagues who can’t be there — they can watch a livestream of the event and use their phones to submit questions.

Technology is changing corporate events, and the pace of change is accelerating, according to Brent Turner, a senior vice president at the event marketing agency Cramer. And for better or worse, tracking abilities are a significant part of that change.

Mr. Turner’s agency creates events for clients like IBM, the German industrial company Siemens and the investing giant Fidelity that host a few hundred to more than 10,000 people. Organizers, exhibitors and attendees use technology to wring more value out of the event, he said, whether that is finding new customers, making better professional connections or reaching people outside the event.

Event management software began as simple tools to register, view the agenda and find out who else was attending. But new features are continually being added, said Karen Shackman, whose company, Shackman Associates New York, produces about 150 corporate events a year. A variety of vendors offer organizers the ability to create a custom mobile app that includes ticketing, maps, connections to social media feeds, ways for attendees to connect with speakers and more.

A platform called Splash connects marketing and registration with a company’s customer information database so the sales force can follow up with attendees. Managers using the app can keep track of metrics, like how many attendee names have been added to the list of potential customers. (The New York Times is a client of Splash for subscriber events.)

DoubleDutch, an event management software company in San Francisco, has been introducing one or two new features a month, said Taylor McLoughlin, the company’s director of marketing. The company recently introduced a new feature called Safety Check. In the event of a mass shooting or other emergency, organizers can send information to attendees, and attendees can mark themselves as “safe” or “not safe.”

Apps that can consolidate tasks like registration, messaging, security, data collection and follow-up have been a big efficiency boon to organizers, said Deanna Ting, who follows the hospitality industry for the travel industry news and research site Skift. At the same time, “rolling out new technology at a high-stakes event can be nerve-racking,” she said, so some planners are embracing the changes faster than others.

Rich Tong, director of strategy for the automotive software company Xevo, attended the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in January. So did 182,000 other people. The most important thing to do each day was plan, Mr. Tong said, because at such a large event, “you don’t just ‘run into’ people.” Using the mobile event app, Mr. Tong tagged the presentations he wanted to attend, the company booths he wanted to visit and searched the online directory for people he wanted to meet. “The whole process has changed dramatically and for the better,” he said. “It used to be long lines and business cards.”

Susan Stark Schall, a real estate agent who works in the Bay Area for Venture Sotheby’s International Realty, attended a company event last year in Las Vegas with 2,400 others. She said she appreciated the ability to send messages and share photos with other agents there using a mobile app. If a client was looking for a property in another city, “you could post your need and you’d get a lot of responses,” she said. Ms. Schall said she also liked the ability in the app to see which classes were full and which ones still had space.

Ms. Shackman said technology offerings need to be intuitive. “Boomers, millennials, everyone needs to understand how to use it with a minimum of effort.”

Some organizers prefer to use social media rather than a special app. Jonathan Meyers, general manager of events at CNBC, said that asking people to download and figure out how to use a special phone app for a one-day conference can be a challenge, so he prefers to connect with attendees on the platforms they are already using, like LinkedIn and Facebook. “We can invite attendees into social media groups to communicate with them and use hashtags for social posts,” he said. He said he has also found that event-specific apps are rarely opened after the event. “It’s easier to continue the conversation,” he said, through groups created using popular social media platforms.

Connections can be as important as content at an event, and networking tools are designed to help attendees find new customers, suppliers or partners. An app called Braindates lets participants share topics they would like to discuss and then meet in person at a Braindate Lounge, where facilitators act as hosts. A recommendation algorithm also offers suggestions of whom to meet. Event goers who are using the networking app Klik, and who have agreed to meet, will see their wristbands light up the same color when they are near each other.

Hiver, a start-up in London, is one of several companies offering a tracking beacon for event attendees. The Hiver beacons can be attached to a lanyard or placed in a badge holder, and when paired with a phone app, will track who the wearer has interacted with at the event and for how long. Attendees can view the list of interactions they have had and the LinkedIn profiles of the people they have met.

Exhibitors can use attendee beacon data to see who stopped by their booth, how long visitors stayed, on average, and the busiest times. That information can help companies adjust plans for that conference or other events. Other crowd-measuring devices include tracking mats that count how many people step on them and cameras at charging stations.

Organizers can also use beacon data to produce heat maps showing crowd flow through the day. That data helps organizers factor in foot traffic when they price future booth location space.

There could be a downside to such uses, though, said Mr. Tong, of Xevo. Privacy and security are issues, he said, “because you don’t want your competitors seeing who you are meeting with.”

At lectures and panels, audience members can sometimes submit questions electronically. The moderator can choose which ones to answer and in what order. “Long gone are the days where you have staff running around a big audience with microphones,” said Mr. Meyers of CNBC. At some events, people listening in from outside can tune in to a live stream and ask questions as well.

Technology is used to engage attendees in other ways. Answers to quick electronic polls can be displayed in graphs and charts on screens throughout the day. Mr. Meyers said that attendees find it interesting to see what their peers are thinking and that the graphs offer fodder for conversations.

Text messages can invite people to “hot spots” where eventgoers with similar interests can meet. “That, in turn, leads to off-site engagement and networking at convention-sponsored events or at other off-hours venues,” Ms. Shackman said.

Ben Hindman, chief executive of Splash, said that the industry has begun to attract more technical people in addition to event managers and party planners. “They want to deliver the right experience to the right person at the right time,” he said.

It takes time and money to create or attend events and, Mr. Hindman said, “Companies want to understand if that investment is paying off.”

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The Steady Rise and Sudden Fall of Leslie Moonves

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At the peak of his success, he carried himself as a living caricature of the larger-than-life Hollywood executive, often prone to issuing sweeping pronouncements. “Americans do not like dark,” he told The Times in 2005. “I understand why creative people like dark, but American audiences don’t like dark.” And his lineups reflected his traditionalist’s notion of what audiences wanted, with Mr. Moonves seeing to it that even the shows centered on grisly murders were not too dark.

“The morgue on ‘C.S.I.: Miami’ looks like a restaurant,” he said. “It may be an odd thing to say, but it looks like a fun place to be.”

And, yes, the easily identifiable good guys on his shows were usually guys. Until recently, CBS was besieged with accusations of having predominantly white leading cast members in its prime time shows, lagging competitors in an industry with a dismal track record concerning diversity.

While excelling as a network programmer, Mr. Moonves survived a series of changes at Black Rock, as the network’s Manhattan headquarters are known. Through it all, he has kept up a tradition at CBS, which was built in the mid-20th century by the similarly domineering William S. Paley. When Mr. Moonves’s subordinates told of how they went about making key decisions, they said things like, “I only have to please one man.”

Mr. Moonves’s last big public moment before his downfall occurred in May at Carnegie Hall, for the annual event known as the upfronts. He took the stage to promote the fall lineup before an audience made up primarily of advertisers. He seemed in his element, although everyone in the crowd knew he was locked in a legal battle with Shari Redstone, the controlling shareholder of the CBS Corporation and the president of its parent company, National Amusements.

The corporate tensions had only raised the dramatic stakes, however, and Mr. Moonves reveled in a prolonged ovation from the 2,000 people in the seats. After working the crowd briefly, he said: “This is the story of the true survivor in this crazy media business we love: broadcasting. The big tent.”

What he did not know was that the tent was not big enough, in the age of the #MeToo movement, which has given a voice to women who had long been silent, to keep him inside much longer.

On Monday, the nearly 13,000 employees of the CBS Corporation had a new boss: Joseph Ianniello, a company veteran who was named acting chief executive on Sunday.

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Between Trump and Brussels, Trade Talks Face Myriad Challenges

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BRUSSELS — When it comes to trade negotiations, there is Trump speed, and then there is Brussels speed. Reconciling the two will be more laborious and hazardous than expected, exposing the world’s biggest trade partnership to further turmoil in the months ahead.

That was the message after President Trump’s top trade negotiator concluded talks with his European counterpart on Monday, with both signaling that any negotiations would be unlikely to produce the quick wins Mr. Trump prefers. If the president runs out of patience, there is a high risk the talks could fall apart entirely, disrupting the $1 trillion in goods and services that flow across the Atlantic every year.

Robert E. Lighthizer, the United States trade representative, met in Brussels with Cecilia Malmstrom, the European commissioner for trade, in the first in a series of formal discussions about what officials described as a far-reaching trans-Atlantic trade agreement.

Progress, though, could be halting. In particular, the European Union appeared to step back from a major concession it made in August.

Ms. Malmstrom said then that the bloc was willing to cut tariffs on motor vehicles to zero, if the United States did the same. The president, his bluff called, immediately declared that the concession was inadequate. Now, the European line is that Ms. Malmstrom will need the approval of the union’s 28 member states before further talks on the issue.

By promising something and then backtracking, Ms. Malmstrom seemed to be taking a page from Mr. Trump’s own playbook. She also made it clear that Europe will not be as accommodating as Mexico, which agreed to revisions to the North American Free Trade Agreement last month, allowing Mr. Trump to claim a victory.

“The E.U. is not going to work that way,” said Jacob Kirkegaard, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. “They are not going to roll over the way the outgoing Mexican government did. There isn’t going to be an easy win here.”

The talks Monday were an attempt to add substance to a promising, but vague, agreement in July between Mr. Trump and Jean-Claude Juncker, the president of the European Commission, the European Union’s executive arm and the organization that leads the bloc’s trade negotiations.

The two leaders agreed after a meeting at the White House on July 25 to “launch a new phase” that would include “strong trade relations in which both of us will win.” The United States and Europe also promised not to further escalate a trade dispute that already includes tariffs on European steel and aluminum. Europe has retaliated with tariffs against American products like motorcycles, pleasure boats, corn and orange juice.

Businesses on both sides of the Atlantic are rooting for negotiators to not only avert a trade war but also eliminate barriers to commerce between the United States and the European Union. Such a deal would benefit both sides, trade experts say, and help them compete better with China, whose trade practices have been criticized by both Washington and Brussels.

European leaders have already achieved one of their main goals, which was simply to delay Mr. Trump from carrying out his threat to slap the tariffs on car imports. The tone of discourse with the United States has also improved.

“It’s the start of something,” said Peter Chase, a senior fellow at the German Marshall Fund in Brussels who is an expert on trans-Atlantic trade relations. “Right now both parties are more constructive than they were a couple of months ago.”

Mr. Trump could, however, easily grow tired of the European Union’s glacial decision-making process and follow through on threats to impose 25 percent tariffs on imported automobiles and car parts. He has taken particular issue with the trade deficit, calling Europe “as bad as China, just smaller.”

The mere prospect of tariffs has already begun to take a toll. German manufacturing unexpectedly fell in July largely because of falling demand for vehicles, according to data published last week.

And there are other points of dispute that could complicate the chances for an agreement. United States officials have said they want to discuss food imports, an area where Europe has a substantial trade surplus. The Europeans refuse to discuss agricultural products, a politically explosive topic in countries like France. Neither side mentioned farm products on Monday.

Europe’s ultimate goal is a broader agreement on industrial goods, eliminating not only tariffs but also regulations that, for example, require different kinds of bumpers or seatbelts on cars and add to manufacturing costs.

Trade advisers and diplomats have been holding informal talks since Mr. Trump and Mr. Juncker met in July, but Monday marked the start of formal discussions. Mr. Lighthizer said he was optimistic there would be progress to report in November. He and Ms. Malmstrom agreed to meet at the end of this month, though they did not specify a date.

The United States representative did not speak to reporters before or after arriving at the European Commission’s headquarters in Brussels. But the commission posted a short video of him walking down a hallway at the building and greeting Ms. Malmstrom.

“Hey, good morning to you, how are you?” Ms. Malmstrom said cheerfully in the video, pulling Mr. Lighthizer toward her to receive kisses on her cheeks.

Mr. Lighthizer replied somewhat cryptically that the greeting, involving a total of three kisses on alternating cheeks, was “the Ukrainian version.”

After representatives of the two sides took their seats, Ms. Malmstrom explained that she chose a smaller space where they would not have to shout at each other.

“It is a very good sign that the European Union and the United States are now engaged in dialogue at the highest level,” said Margaritis Schinas, the commission’s chief spokesman. “Of course, we’ll need to wait and see that this process crystallizes in results.”

Mr. Trump’s mercurial presence looms over the talks. Officials and business leaders in Europe are keenly aware that he could undercut progress with a single tweet or comment.

After European leaders said late in August that they were willing to eliminate tariffs on vehicles, a major concession, Mr. Trump was dismissive. “It’s not good enough,” he said in an interview with Bloomberg News.

Follow Milan Schreuer and Jack Ewing on Twitter: @MilanSchreuer and @JackEwingNYT.

Milan Schreuer reported from Brussels, and Jack Ewing from Frankfurt.

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In Britain, Calls for a 4-Day Week. Can It Be Done?

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LONDON — Increasing numbers of workplaces around the world are embracing technology, and a greater array of tasks is being automated. In the eyes of one major British labor organization, that need not be a threat to workers, but may instead offer an opportunity: less time working.

“I believe that in this century, we can win a four-day working week, with decent pay for everyone,” Frances O’Grady, the head of the Trades Union Congress, an umbrella group, said in a speech at the labor federation’s annual conference. That, she said, would help workers reap the benefits of technological change.

The economist John Maynard Keynes had predicted that people would eventually work for just 15 hours a week. Instead, technology has led to unpredictable, more intensive, and longer hours at work, the Trades Union Congress said. “This is a return to the days of piecework, creating a culture where workers are required to be constantly available to work,” the group said in a report.

It is not the only organization scrutinizing how technology affects productivity and work-life balance.

Who is experimenting with a shorter workweek?

■ A trial of a six-hour workday in Gothenburg, Sweden, led to happier, healthier and more productive employees. The problem: It was too expensive.

■ Perpetual Guardian, a firm that manages trusts and estates in New Zealand, instituted a four-day week and kept wages the same. It said productivity increased among its staff when their working hours were reduced to 32 hours from 40. The company is now considering whether to make the change permanent.

■ In an effort to close a hefty gap in its state budget in the years after the 2008 financial crisis, Utah trimmed the workweek. Proponents said the move had the effect of improving the offering of government services available online and was better for the environment, but the state also benefited from volunteer groups picking up the slack when government organizations were closed.

■ Amazon, the online retail behemoth, has tested a small pilot program for a 30-hour workweek, where staff worked reduced hours, though for reduced pay.

What else is being done to guard against encroaching technology?

■ France has created a law giving workers the “right to disconnect.” It requires companies with more than 50 employees to negotiate a new protocol to ensure that work does not spill into after-work hours, an effort to prevent cases of burnout, which officials say are becoming more prevalent.

■ Several measures have been taken in Germany to improve work-life balance. The country’s Labor Ministry ordered its supervisors in 2013 not to contact employees outside office hours. In 2011, the German automaker Volkswagen began shutting off its Blackberry servers at the end of the workday. Daimler, another German car company, deletes emails sent to employees while they are on vacation.

So will we all have 3-day weekends soon?

Unfortunately not. It may be feasible for some companies, but it is unlikely to happen across entire economies in the years to come.

Any such change, even if it were possible, would not occur overnight, said Alex Bryson, a professor who specializes in labor studies at University College London. Companies that wanted to limit working hours would have to make investments to help their workers become more productive, which would take time and cost money, he said.

“It’ll be a gradual switch,” added Paul Swinney, the head of policy and research at the Center for Cities, a London-based think tank. “We’ll see a bit of that with some people deciding to work four days one week, and five another. It’ll change gradually along with social norms.”

“In 50 or 100 years time, it may be that four days is the norm,” he continued, “but we shouldn’t expect it by 2020.”

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From ‘Sunday Best’ to ’90s Neon: The Evolution of Back-to-School Fashion

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It’s back-to-school shopping season, and American families will spend $82.8 billion this year, most of it on clothing, the National Retail Federation estimates. It’s second only to Christmas for many retailers.

Families with children planned to spend an average of $237 on clothing per child, according to data from the federation. And most of that shopping is still done in department stores, said Ana Serafin Smith, a spokeswoman for the group.

So what’s popular this year? Everyone agrees: It’s ’80s and ’90s nostalgia. Think neon, fanny packs and “dad sneakers.” Street-style activewear is also in demand, as is apparel with messages about inclusivity and peace.

It’s a far cry from the plaid jumpers, skirtsuits and berets pictured above, from a 1952 article in The New York Times advertising dress patterns for sale. Virginia Pope, then the paper’s fashion editor, described how to use the patterns, which were available for 25 to 35 cents and a self-addressed stamped envelope.

“Little sisters of the back-to-college girls receive a share of the limelight at this time of year with their own pretty little back-to-school fashions,” she wrote.

“The young lady will be dressed in her Sunday best if the long-sleeved suit is fashioned of a fine worsted or woolen fabric. If she likes to imitate big sister, let her have the suit in camel’s hair colored flannel. Or for dancing school, the jacket in velvet and the skirt in faille.”

Ms. Pope was the fashion editor from 1933 to 1955, and Bill Cunningham, the legendary Times fashion photographer, once wrote that “for many in the American fashion world in the ’30s, ’40s and ’50s, Miss Pope was also a hero.”

In 1936, Ms. Pope wrote enthusiastically about the options for American girls to wear as they returned to school, praising them as “the effects of a new youth movement.” She noted that many were designed by young American women, and their garments were “fresh and full of vigor.” She described the cuts in detail, and applauded the presence of pockets. (Designers, please take note.)

“It is true that the American girl has a style of her own,” she wrote. “It is the outgrowth of her active and athletic life. The day-time and sports clothes designed for autumn seem more truly to express her than ever before.”

In the following decades, the fashion industry took off and became a multibillion-dollar industry. An article on Sept. 5, 1965, chronicled the elaborate events that retailers were putting on to attract shoppers during the back-to-school rush.

The Manhattan department store Stern Brothers put on fashion shows for grade-school children and undergraduates, the latter featuring appearances by Johnny Mathis and the Supremes.

The article noted that a strong economy was responsible for the boom, but added that “new youthful styling,” also known as the “Youthquake,” or the “Mod” or “British Look,” for boys and girls was a factor, as well as the “discotheque or ‘go-go’ look.”

It also detailed an old-fashioned influencer operation. Abraham & Straus, then Brooklyn’s biggest department store, started the program in the early 1940s. It appointed a full-time youth coordinator and two boards made up of teenagers, who kept company executives in the know about “the desires and needs of the teenage world.” They also kept their schoolmates informed about the store’s offerings, through word of mouth, newsletters and school newspapers.

By the early 2000s, the businesses sponsoring similar back-to-school fashion shows included AOL, which held one at a skate park in Brooklyn, a 2004 article noted, in an attempt to “establish style cred with its youthful market.”

These days, of course, designers can take their wares straight to consumers on Instagram and other social media platforms — sometimes via powerful influencers like Kylie Jenner, who of late has strongly embraced the revival of ’90s neon.

That’s true both for adult and children’s fashion. In recent decades, children’s wear designs have increasingly overlapped with the general apparel market, as mentioned in a 1999 article. Many popular labels offer children’s wear lines, and options for “mommy and me” or “daddy and me” outfits abound.

“More and more parents are looking for their kids to dress similar to their style,” said Tiziana Indelicato, a branding executive and co-founder of petitePARADE, a biannual runway show for children’s wear.

Of course, for younger children, and those who are less concerned with fashion, comfort remains king. In 2015, The Times reported that some boys were refusing to wear stiff jeans, preferring sweatpants. Lines like J. Crew’s Crewcuts, Lands’ End and H&M were adding slim-cut track pants and stretchy denim to accommodate them.

And some schools have dress codes and uniforms, so the fashion-forward must direct their efforts toward trying to accessorize, say with bright tights and jewelry.

Ms. Edwards added that her readers are all about “democratizing fashion” and celebrating different body shapes, races, ethnicities and abilities.

“They support the brands that celebrate them,” she said. “And it definitely gives me hope for the future to see that.”

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Breakingviews: Volvo’s I.P.O. Problems Go Beyond a Brewing Trade War

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President Trump’s threats of a trade war are becoming a useful corporate scapegoat. Volvo’s stalled initial public offering was no doubt hindered by American tariffs, as the company claims, but its mooted valuation was also far too high.

The carmaker, known for its boxy family vehicles, was supposed to offer shares in Sweden and Hong Kong this autumn. Its Chinese owner, the automotive manufacturing company Geely, whose portfolio includes Lotus and Proton, sought a $30 billion valuation, according to the Financial Times.

That’s now on pause. Volvo boss Hakan Samuelsson said on Monday that “conditions right now are not optimal,” and called trade discussions between the United States, China and Europe “really difficult to predict.” He is correct. The introduction of American and Chinese tariffs has hit groups like BMW and Daimler, which ship American-made cars to China. Their shares are down 6 percent and 23 percent, respectively, so far this year. Mr. Trump has also threatened Europe with tariffs of up to 25 percent on vehicle imports.

But Volvo, which sells over half of its cars in Europe, is far less at risk than its more internationally-successful peers. It is already shifting production to avoid extra costs, Reuters reported. Besides, Mr. Trump’s threats of European levies may yet prove to be empty.

The bigger problem is Volvo’s valuation. Geely’s desired price was equivalent to 27 times the Swedish automaker’s earnings, which totaled $1.1 billion last year. That is more than quadruple the multiples at which BMW and Daimler trade.

Granted, Volvo invests heavily in self-driving technology and says all cars launched after 2019 will either be electric or hybrid. That puts it ahead of peers when it comes to moving on from the internal combustion engine.

Investors are nonetheless skeptical that old-school auto groups can get a return on these electric-vehicle investments. Valuations were falling well before Mr. Trump moved into the White House. Toyota took years to turn a profit on its popular Prius hybrid model.

Raising capital at a high valuation to fund an even more aggressive push into electric vehicles was always going to be difficult. Mr. Trump deserves only part of the blame.

Liam Proud is a columnist for Reuters Breakingviews. For more independent commentary and analysis, visit breakingviews.com.

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Several Reported Killed in Libya as Gunmen Storm National Oil Company

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Gunmen stormed the headquarters of Libya’s national oil company in Tripoli on Monday, setting off explosions, taking hostages and spraying gunfire, leaving several people dead or wounded before forces aligned with the government took control of the building. The identity and motives of the assailants were not clear.

The oil company said two of its employees had been killed, and there were reports of two gunmen killed, putting the total number of dead at four. But an employee who escaped the assault said he believed that as many as six people had been killed, including three of the assailants.

The attack follows a month of escalating violence among rival militias competing for control of Tripoli, the capital, where a United Nations-backed government has its headquarters but remains largely powerless. Last week, clashes killed more than 60 people.

Any attack on the national oil company is significant because petroleum is the lifeblood of the Libyan economy, and competition for control of the country’s vast oil reserves is at the heart of the often violent struggle for power there. Cuts in oil revenue because of the fighting have driven Libya into a severe financial crisis, with the government failing to meet the public payrolls, long lines forming at banks, and inflation soaring.

The employee who escaped, Baha Elddin, said in an interview that six men armed with “machine guns” had fought their way into the building. Three had blown themselves up, he said, and three others had climbed the stairs to the upper floors.

Mr. Elddin said that local militia fighters had responded to the incursion by besieging the building and that their gunfire may have caused the most casualties. “They started shooting at the assailants inside while the assailants threw grenades down on them from the second floor,” Mr. Elddin said in a telephone interview. “I think that most injuries happened because the respondents were shooting in.”

On Facebook, a government-aligned militia described the assault as a “terrorist attack” and the assailants as “suicide bombers.”

Speaking in the early afternoon in Tripoli, Mr. Elddin said that the battle had ended with as many as 10 employees injured, and that it was unclear whether the three assailants who had climbed the stairs had escaped from the scene. He and the militia both described the attackers as dark-skinned, suggesting they could be from ethnic groups native to Libya or from other African countries.

There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the attack.

The chairman of the state oil company, Mustafa Sanallah, escaped unharmed, and experts said it was unlikely that the attack would directly affect Libya’s oil production. But the events demonstrated that the country’s oil infrastructure remains vulnerable.

“It’s a reminder that the country remains at risk,” said Riccardo Fabiani, a geopolitical analyst at Energy Aspects, a market research firm. “There is still a backdrop of violence and instability that could again cut production at anytime in the future.”

Libya has descended into chaos in the seven years since the overthrow of Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi. The United Nations and Western powers have tried to set up a government based in Tripoli that might be able to unify the country.

But so far, power in Tripoli and Western Libya remains divided among rival local or Islamist militias. A would-be strongman, Gen. Khalifa Hifter, dominates the Eastern area around Benghazi, thanks in part to the backing of Egypt and the United Arab Emirates.

The Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, had controlled its own beachhead around the coastal city of Sirte until it was driven out by Western airstrikes and local militias in 2016. Many of its fighters have fled into the sparsely populated desert regions. They occasionally stage terrorist attacks on institutions of the rival governments backed by the United Nations and General Hifter, including a similar assault last spring on an election commission.

Several parties agreed in May to hold elections in December for a president and a Parliament. How and by whom that vote might be conducted and secured remains to be determined, and the recent fighting in Tripoli underscores the scale of the challenge.

Analysts say the National Oil Corporation has managed to remain neutral amid the turmoil. It has increased production — which fell to almost nothing after war broke out in 2011 — to around one million barrels a day.

That is still significantly below prewar output, but analysts say that under current circumstances, it is probably close to the maximum Libya can produce. Oil producing centers, pipelines and export terminals around the country are vulnerable to attack.

Monday’s assault comes at a time of growing concerns about global oil supplies. As the Trump administration tries to cut off Iranian exports, they have declined to around two million a day in August from about 2.7 million barrels a day in May, and they are expected to drop to 1.5 million a day in September, according to Energy Aspects. Venezuela’s output continues to decline amid political chaos and economic collapse.

“Too many market participants are way too complacent about Libya,” said Helima Croft, an analyst at RBC Capital Markets in New York.

“We are one major supply outage away from a super spike,” she added, referring to much higher prices.

Stanley Reed contributed reporting.

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Most Doctors Are Ill-Equipped to Deal With the Opioid Epidemic. Few Medical Schools Teach Addiction.

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BOSTON — To the medical students, the patient was a conundrum.

According to his chart, he had residual pain from a leg injury sustained while working on a train track. Now he wanted an opioid stronger than the Percocet he’d been prescribed. So why did his urine test positive for two other drugs — cocaine and hydromorphone, a powerful opioid that doctors had not ordered?

It was up to Clark Yin, 29, to figure out what was really going on with Chris McQ, 58 — as seven other third-year medical students and two instructors watched.

“How are you going to have a conversation around the patient’s positive tox screen results?” asked Dr. Lidya H. Wlasiuk, who teaches addiction awareness and interventions here at Boston University School of Medicine.

Mr. Yin threw up his hands. “I have no idea,” he admitted.

Chris McQ is a fictional case study created by Dr. Wlasiuk, brought to life for this class by Ric Mauré, a keyboard player who also works as a standardized patient — trained to represent a real patient, to help medical students practice diagnostic and communication skills. The assignment today: grappling with the delicate art and science of managing a chronic pain patient who might be tipping into a substance use disorder.

How can a doctor win over a patient who fears being judged? How to determine whether the patient’s demand for opioids is a response to dependence or pain?

Addressing these quandaries might seem fundamental in medical training — such patients appear in just about every field, from internal medicine to orthopedics to cardiology. The need for front-line intervention is dire: primary care providers like Dr. Wlasiuk, who practices family medicine in a Boston community clinic, routinely encounter these patients but often lack the expertise to prevent, diagnose and treat addiction.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, addiction— whether to tobacco, alcohol or other drugs — is a disease that contributes to 632,000 deaths in the United States annually.

But comprehensive addiction training is rare in American medical education. A report by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University called out “the failure of the medical profession at every level — in medical school, residency training, continuing education and in practice” to adequately address addiction.

Dr. Timothy Brennan, who directs an addiction medicine fellowship at Mt. Sinai, said that combating the crisis with this provider work force is “like trying to fight World War II with only the Coast Guard.”

Now, a decade-long push by doctors, medical students and patients to legitimize addiction medicine is resulting in blips of change around the country. A handful of students has begun to specialize in the nascent field, which concentrates on prevention and treatment of addictions and the effect of addictive substances on other medical conditions. In June, the House of Representatives authorized a bill to reimburse education costs for providers who work in areas particularly afflicted by addiction.

There are only 52 addiction medicine fellowships (addiction psychiatry is a separate discipline), minuscule compared to other subspecialties. In August, the first dozen finally received gold-standard board certification status from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (by contrast, there are at least 235 accredited programs in sports medicine).

While most medical schools now offer some education about opioids, only about 15 of 180 American programs teach addiction as including alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, according to Dr. Kevin Kunz, executive vice president of the Addiction Medicine Foundation, which presses for professionalization of the subspecialty. And the content in all schools varies, he noted, ranging from one pharmacology lecture to several weeks during a third-year clinical rotation, usually in psychiatry or family medicine.

Programs rarely go deeper. But Boston University braids addiction training into all four years.

This 75-minute session to teach B.U. students the nuances of assessing a pain patient is already unusual. What also distinguishes it is the presence of an addiction medicine fellow, Dr. Bradley M. Buchheit of Boston Medical Center.

“What isn’t present in his tox screen?“ Dr. Buchheit prompted students.

Fidgety silence.

“What we’ve prescribed him — Percocet,” Dr. Buchheit told them.

“So we have to figure out where that Percocet has been going.”

And suddenly the medical maze surrounding Mr. McMQ became even more complex.

Asking about cocaine use

When you are a twenty-something medical student, fists clenching nervously in the pockets of your white medical coat, learning to get gruff, grizzled Chris McQ to disclose uncomfortable truths is not readily gleaned from a textbook. Mr. McQ is crusty and defensive. As students resorted to the same chirpy rejoinder — “Awesome!”— he tried not to flinch. The man just wanted pain meds.

In each small-group session, a student had 15 minutes to assess Mr. McQ and make a plan. Mr. McQ once had a cocaine problem. His girlfriend was taking hydromorphone, known as Dilaudid, for back pain. Was he at risk for misusing opioids?

“Ask him about his pain first, ” Dr. Wlasiuk told the students. “Language matters. Avoid saying, ‘I found this out.’ Instead, say, ‘This was in your urine screen.’ You want to keep that conversation going, not shut it down.“

The students had learned about “motivational interviewing,” a technique that encourages patients to articulate health goals. As medicine moves away from doctor-knows-best paternalism, students are being schooled in engaging the patient with a joint-decision-making, team approach.

Before Mr. McQ entered the classroom, the students debated: Was he selling Percocet to buy cocaine? Stealing his girlfriend’s Dilaudid?

Dr. Buchheit cautioned: “Substance use disorder is a chronic, relapsing disease. So is diabetes. Diabetics don’t follow a diabetic diet 100 percent of the time. If they were to have a slip-up, we would figure out what went wrong and say ‘Is there anything else we can do?”

Despite the urgent need for addiction medicine education, there are considerable barriers to establishing it. Hours of training have already been meted out to conditions deemed critical. Making time in a jammed schedule can mean another subject has to be shrunk.

Because addiction medicine is young , most medical schools can’t rely for expertise on fellows—post-graduate students who steep themselves in a subspecialty. Fellows would typically consult on addiction-related cases in hospitals and clinics, educate medical students and supervise residents in primary care fields where these patients first appear: family medicine, emergency medicine, obstetrics.

And so the field of addiction medicine struggles to perpetuate itself.

Dr. Daniel Alford, a professor and associate dean at Boston University, is a driving force behind its curriculum. “The biggest challenge now is how do you sustain it?” he said. “Who keeps updating it? When faculty leave, who will replace them?”

There is not much incentive to specialize in addiction medicine. According to a 2017 study, insurance disparities can be striking. Insurance views addiction treatment as an afterthought to mental health therapy, which itself trails reimbursement for physical health care.

The reasons for resisting this career are also cultural. The stigma that attaches to patients also clings to doctors who treat them. The patients are often dismissed as manipulative and incurable; caring for them is seen as a thankless endeavor.

“I really enjoy working with these patients,” Dr. Buchheit told the students. “They have often been kicked to the curb by the formal medical system. They don’t trust us. So for them to walk into a room and have a doctor say, ‘It’s great to see you, thank you for coming in,’ is very powerful. And then you can see them get better with treatment. It can be very rewarding work.”

The students tried out approaches on Mr. McQ. “You called our office and wanted an early refill on your Percocet,” said one. “But it’s important that you come in. I’m glad you’re here and we can maintain our relationship.”

Mr. McQ told one student that his pain had worsened — that he ran through his prescription, tried to get more and took some of his girlfriend’s Dilaudid.

Mr. McQ suggested that the doctor switch him to Dilaudid.

“Time out!” Mr. Yin, the student, said, turning to the class.

“What are you struggling with?” Dr. Wlasiuk asked him.

Mr. Yin replied that he didn’t want to reward the patient’s behavior with a prescription for stronger medication, but also didn’t want to drive the patient away. “I trust the patient’s story about pain,” he said, “but I don’t want to be naïve.”

Another student asked: “By increasing his dose, are you protecting him from getting the drugs off the street?”

Dr. Wlasiuk said that although medical training typically urges students to come up with absolute answers, treating these patients often means getting comfortable with ambiguity.

The students brainstormed with her and Dr. Buchheit. Some offered to raise the Percocet dose if he agreed to frequent office visits; others urged him to try physical therapy and acupuncture.

A few remembered to caution Mr. McQ about opioids. (“Percocet is an opioid?” Mr. McQ responded. “I’m not one of those people! “)

In an evenhanded tone, Chioma Anyikwa, 25, marched through Mr. McQ’s history and pain, which he had previously listed as four of 10.

“A seven-plus, “ he said.

“Wow, that’s pretty high,” she said. “Did you do anything else to treat it?” Hesitantly, he spoke about sharing his girlfriend’s Dilaudid.

“In your urine screen we also saw some cocaine,” she continued. “Do you know anything about that? I appreciate you being honest with me.”

Mr. McQ looked uneasy. “It’s not gonna mess me up if I tell you?”

She shook her head. “No, we just want to help you regroup and fix the problem,” she said.

He admitted that a friend had been in town and they did a few lines for old times’ sake.

Afterward, Ms. Anyikwa braced for the group’s feedback.

“Did I talk too much?” she asked.

From classroom to clinic

Two days later, Ms. Anyikwa screened actual patients.

Supervised by Dr. Wlasiuk, she spent a day at South Boston Community Health Center.

The first patient, Brooke Anglin, 28, had had a rough ride. During a turbulent relationship when she was sagged down by depression and severe anxiety, she soothed herself with opioids. After the birth of her second child, she lost both her job as a supermarket cake decorator and custody of her two children. Under Dr. Wlasiuk’s care, she gradually weaned herself off the opioids.

As Dr. Wlasiuk looked on, Ms. Anyikwa began careful questioning. “How have things been going?” she asked the patient.

Not great, Ms. Anglin replied. Earlier that week she had been evicted.

“That’s a lot,” Ms. Anyikwa responded. “How are you coping?”

Ms. Anglin said she’d had a resurgence of anxiety.

That was enough for Dr. Wlasiuk to step in. “Is your heart racing? Are you feeling panicky?”

Ms. Anyikwa watched Dr. Wlasiuk closely.

“Have you felt you wanted something for it from your friends?” Dr. Wlasiuk gently pressed. “What’s stopped you?”

Ms. Anglin whispered, “I want my kids back.”

Dr. Wlasiuk grasped Ms. Anglin’s hands. “I am amazed by your strength,” she said. “I want to treat your anxiety until things settle down. What are your thoughts?”

They agreed on temporary anti-anxiety medication . Dr. Wlasiuk also taught her breathing exercises.

After the patient left, Dr. Wlasiuk remarked, “Primary care is the right place for treating substance misuse. We have the privilege of getting to know our patients well. How can you treat addiction in a vacuum?”

The next up was Sharon, 61, who brought along a toddler grandchild. Both Sharon and her daughter, the child’s mother, take Suboxone, a medication that can ease opioid craving.

Dr. Wlasiuk entered and Ms. Anyikwa started her recitation.

“Sharon has been clean for years,” Ms. Anyikwa began.

Vigilant about language and stigma, Dr. Wlasiuk interrupted her. “Clean” is eschewed by many in the field, because it implies that those in the throes of addiction are, by extension, “dirty.”

Educating new practitioners requires painstaking deconstruction of old reflexive thinking, careful building of fresh approaches.

“You mean she’s in recovery,” Dr. Wlasiuk quietly admonished Ms. Anyikwa.

“Right,” the student replied, abashed. “In recovery.”

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DealBook Briefing: What’s Next for CBS Without Les Moonves?

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Good Monday morning. The New Yorker has just published a biting critique of Mark Zuckerberg’s struggle to fix Facebook, based on hours of interviews with the C.E.O. From the article: “The question is not whether Zuckerberg has the power to fix Facebook but whether he has the will.” (Was this email forwarded to you? Sign up here.)

Les Moonves’s exit shows the power of #MeToo

CBS’s longtime C.E.O. stepped down last night after a 15-year reign that turned the network from an also-ran to a king of the TV industry. Sealing his fate was an article in The New Yorker with fresh allegations of sexual harassment, following a bombshell report in July.

Mr. Moonves’s severance package will depend on the result of the company’s investigation into the claims. He could walk away with over $120 million — or nothing. (The advocacy group Times Up demanded “no reward for Les Moonves.”) CBS will donate $20 million to organizations that support equality for women in the workplace.

The situation raises more questions about why Mr. Moonves would put himself under increased scrutiny by picking a fight with CBS’s controlling shareholder, Shari Redstone, this year. That legal battle was also settled Sunday night, and the company added six new directors, including three women.

Not much will change for CBS in the short term, with Mr. Moonves’s top lieutenant, Joseph Ianniello, taking over as interim C.E.O.

Ms. Redstone had wanted to merge the company with Viacom, but the settlement delays any such push for two years. Brian Stelter of CNN says that it now “seems inevitable” that CBS could be sold off separately from Viacom. Interestingly, one of the new CBS directors is Candace Beinecke of the law firm Hughes Hubbard & Reed whose specialties, according to her corporate bio, are “corporate governance & M.&A.”

____________________________

Today’s DealBook Briefing was written by Andrew Ross Sorkin in New York, and Michael J. de la Merced and Jamie Condliffe in London.

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Alibaba’s co-founder steps down in a time of turmoil

Jack Ma announced his retirement as the Chinese internet giant’s chairman today, 19 years after he created the company in his apartment. What began as a way for businesses to sell goods to one another online has become one of the world’s biggest e-commerce platforms. (And made Mr. Ma one of China’s richest men.)

Daniel Zhang, Alibaba’s C.E.O., will become chairman — though with a 6 percent stake Mr. Ma will continue to exert influence over the company. “Alibaba was never about Jack Ma, but Jack Ma will forever belong to Alibaba,” he wrote in a letter to employees.

His departure comes at a tough time for Alibaba and its peers. Beijing is tightening control of tech companies, which has squeezed a top rival, Tencent. And the Chinese economy is slowing, wounding competitors like JD.com.

Alibaba is faring better. But Tim Culpan of Bloomberg Opinion argues that the company needs a new business plan. So Mr. Zhang may have his work cut out.

Volvo delays its I.P.O. Blame the trade wars.

The Swedish carmaker had intended to go public by the end of the year, at a market value of $30 billion. But the company fears that the risk of its valuation falling below that are now too high, so it has paused the process.

Volvo’s C.E.O., Hakan Samuelsson, told the FT that “conditions right now are not optimal,” adding that outcomes of trade discussions between China, Europe, and the U.S. were “really difficult to predict.” He said that prospective investors, particularly Swedish pension funds, could be hurt by a drop in valuation. Instead, Volvo would prefer “stable market conditions.”

The company is taking steps to avoid U.S. tariffs, including shifting production of some models to Sweden to avoid a levy on Chinese-made vehicles. Mr. Samuelsson said that an I.P.O. was still in the cards — but that there was “ no hurry.”

America and Europe seek a trade pact

U.S. and E.U. officials are to meet today in Brussels in a bid to avert an all-out trade war. Here’s what to expect, from Jack Ewing of the NYT:

Robert Lighthizer, the United States trade representative, and Cecilia Malmstrom, the European commissioner for trade, are trying to reach an agreement on a plan to cut tariffs on industrial goods to zero and prevent President Trump from carrying out a threat to impose 25 percent levies on car imports. An accord is unlikely on Monday, but businesses on both sides of the Atlantic will be looking for signs that the two sides are making progress.

More trade news: President Trump pressed Apple to move production to America. He also said that tariffs meant that Ford could make a new model in the U.S., but the company said it had no plans to do so. Beijing invited Wall Street C.E.O.s to discuss ways to end the U.S.-China trade war. And Iran is relying on its foreign investment fund to skirt U.S. sanctions.

Elliott Management seeks to settle a score with VW

A German court will start hearing evidence today in a lawsuit filed by Volkswagen shareholders over the carmaker’s emissions-testing scandal. The plaintiffs say that Volkswagen violated its responsibility to them when it used illegal software to cheat on emissions tests — and they’re seeking billions of euros in damages.

Bankrolling one set of shareholders is the hedge fund Elliott Management. As Jack Ewing of the NYT points out, the firm would collect as much as 30 percent of any award in return for paying legal costs upfront.

A victory may make amends for Elliott’s failed bet in 2008 against Volkswagen shares. The hedge fund has claimed that market manipulation was to blame in that case, but courts never agreed.

Threat of inflation looms in China

The prices of pork, gasoline and more are rising in China. Government officials said today that an index of consumer prices rose in August for the third consecutive month. Keith Bradsher of the NYT explains what that could mean for the nation:

Higher prices would mean China’s leaders would have to be careful as they seek ways to bolster slowing growth, lest their efforts drive up prices still further. The trade war with the United States could also lead to higher prices for Chinese consumers and companies as tariffs raise the cost of imported goods.

Chinese economists say that there is no cause for alarm, and that some price increases may be temporary. But the consumer price index may understate the situation, so expect close scrutiny of prices over the coming weeks.

Pinterest eschews Silicon Valley norms. Can it also redefine them?

Facebook, Twitter and YouTube come under fire every day over disinformation, harassment and more. But you can rely on Pinterest for cutesy design inspiration without fear of fake news. As Erin Griffith of the NYT writes, it’s different in other ways, too: It prioritizes “quality” growth and places huge importance on values.

Some investors and employees have said that the approach has stunted growth. But the company is worth $12.3 billion, its user base is expanding and there is wide speculation that it will go public next year. Which side is correct? As Ms. Griffith writes:

If Pinterest continues its trajectory, it could change the narrative of what it takes to build a successful company in Silicon Valley, a meaningful feat at a time that the start-up world is seeking new templates for leaders. If it doesn’t, it’ll serve as another example of wasted potential, or worse, a cautionary tale.

Revolving door

Tesla named Jerome Guillen, who oversaw its Model 3 factory, to the new position of automotive president.

Mike Berkley stepped down as Moviepass’s chief product officer after just six months.

John O’Rourke resigned as C.E.O. of Riot Blockchain after the S.E.C. accused him of being involved in a pump-and-dump fraud scheme.

Daniel Michalow filed a complaint against D.E. Shaw over what he says were defamatory comments.

Imran Khan will step down as chief strategy officer of Snapchat’s parent company.

The speed read

Deals

• Inside the implosion of Social Capital, the V.C. firm founded by the former Facebook executive Chamath Palihapitiya. (Axios)

• India is in the midst of an M.&A. boom. (Bloomberg)

• European banks will have to consolidate to compete in an America First era, says the former Deutsche Bank chairman Josef Ackermann. (Bloomberg)

Politics and policy

• Banking regulators should be more transparent about changes to the Volcker Rule, according to Sheila Bair, the former head of the F.D.I.C. (WSJ op-ed)

• President Trump won’t seek to enforce a confidentiality agreement with Stormy Daniels, a move meant to avoid being deposed in her lawsuit against him. (Bloomberg)

• Federal, state and local governments now employ a smaller share of the U.S. work force than at any time in the last six decades. (Bloomberg Opinion)

• The E.U. is reportedly close to giving its top Brexit negotiator, Michel Barnier, a mandate to close a deal on Britain leaving the political bloc. (FT)

Tech

• Here’s a roundup about the future of wireless communication. (FT)

• Tesla needs to build investor trust, but that isn’t going well. Short-sellers are finally making money from the company.

• Citigroup has a new way to invest in Bitcoin where buyers don’t have to own cryptocurrency. (Also: crypto prices continue to slide.)

• Spend three hours up close with Alex Jones. (NYT)

• A court case this week could determine if Europe can export its privacy rules worldwide. (WSJ)

Best of the rest

• Nike’s online sales surged after unveiling Colin Kaepernick as a spokesman for its latest ad campaign. (CNBC)

• How the investment firm Abraaj fell from grace. (FT)

• Chinese markets could keep falling. (CNBC)

• Why the Fed might want to care more about finance. (FT Opinion)

Thanks for reading! We’ll see you tomorrow.

You can find live updates throughout the day at nytimes.com/dealbook.

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